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                    • ▸▸
                      • 🇬🇧 Zirconium
                      • 🇨🇳 鋯
                      • 🇳🇱 Zirkonium
                      • 🇫🇷 Zirconium
                      • 🇩🇪 Zirconium
                      • 🇮🇱 זירקוניום
                      • 🇮🇹 Zirconio
                      • 🇯🇵 ジルコニウム
                      • 🇵🇹 Zircônio
                      • 🇷🇺 Цирконий
                      • 🇪🇸 Circonio
                      • 🇸🇪 Zirkonium

                      Zirconium: the essentials

                      Zirconium atoms have 40 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.10.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral zirconium is [Kr].4d2.5s2 and the term symbol of zirconium is 3F2.

                      Zirconium: description  

                      网络斗地主下载Zirconium is a greyish-white lustrous metal. The finely divided metal can ignite spontaneously in air, especially at elevated temperatures. The solid metal is much more difficult to ignite. The inherent toxicity of zirconium compounds is low. Hafnium is invariably found in zirconium ores, and the separation is difficult. Commercial grade zirconium contains from 1 to 3% hafnium. The hafnium is removed from the zirconium used in the nuclear power industry.

                      Zirconium is found in S-type stars, and has been identified in the sun and meteorites. Analyses of lunar rock samples show a surprisingly high zirconium oxide content as compared with terrestrial rocks. Some forms of zircon (ZrSiO4) have excellent gemstone qualities.

                      zirconium

                      The image above is a virtual representation of zirconium metal calculated by using the complex diectric function of the element only.

                      zirconium foil sheet
                      网络斗地主下载Zirconium foil.

                      Zirconium: physical properties

                      More physical properties...

                      Zirconium: heat properties

                      More thermochemical properties...

                      Zirconium: atom sizes

                      More atomc size properties...

                      Zirconium: electronegativities

                      More electronegativity properties...

                      Zirconium: orbital properties

                      More orbital properties...

                      Zirconium: abundances

                      More geological data...

                      Zirconium: crystal structure

                      Zr crystal structure
                      The solid state structure of zirconium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                      More crystallographic data...

                      Zirconium: biological data

                      Zirconium has no biological role. The tolerance of human tissues to it makes the metal suitable for some artificial joints and limbs.

                      More biological data...

                      Zirconium: uses

                      Uses...

                      Zirconium: reactions

                      Reactions of zirconium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                      View reactions of zirconium...

                      Zirconium: binary compounds

                      网络斗地主下载 Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of zirconium where known.

                      View binary compounds...

                      Zirconium: compound properties

                      网络斗地主下载 Bond strengths; lattice energies of zirconium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                      View compound properties...

                      Zirconium: history

                      Zirconium was discovered by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in 1789 at Berlin, Germany. Origin of name: from the Arabic word "zargun" meaning "gold colour".

                      More history...

                      Zirconium: isotopes

                      Isotope abundances of zirconium
                      Isotope abundances of zirconium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                      网络斗地主下载Zirconium has five stable isotopes, of which a few are used for the production of radioisotopes. Although radioactive Zr-95 is a fission product, it can also produced by neutron irradiation of Zr-94. Zr-96 has been used for the production of the radioisotope Zr-97. Zr-90 can be used for the production of the PET isotope Nb-90. Finally, Zr-90 has been proposed for cladding in nuclear fuel. The use of Zr-90 would lower even further the already low neutron absorption cross section of natural Zr that is currently used as fuel cladding.

                      More isotope and NMR data...

                      Zirconium: isolation

                      Isolation: zirconium is available from commercial sources so preparation in the laboratory is not normally required. In industry, reduction of ores with carbon is not a useful option as intractable carbides are produced. As for titanium, the Kroll method is used for zirconium and involves the action of chlorine and carbon upon baddeleyite (ZrO2). The resultant zirconium tetrachloride, ZrCl4, is separated from the iron trichloride, FeCl3, by fractional distillation. Finally ZrCl4网络斗地主下载 is reduced to metallic zirconium by reduction with magnesium, Mg. Air is excluded so as to prevent contamination of the product with oxygen or nitrogen.

                      ZrO2 + 2Cl2 + 2C (900°C) → ZrCl4 + 2CO

                      ZrCl4 + 2Mg (1100°C) → 2MgCl2 + Zr

                      网络斗地主下载Excess magensium and magnesium dichloride is removed from the product by treatment with water and hydrochloric acid to leave a zirconium "sponge". This can be melted under helium by electrical heating.

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