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                      2. ▸▸
                        • 🇬🇧 Tungsten
                        • 🇨🇳 鎢
                        • 🇳🇱 Wolfraam
                        • 🇫🇷 Tungstène
                        • 🇩🇪 Wolfram
                        • 🇮🇱 טונגסטן
                        • 🇮🇹 Tungsteno (wolframio)
                        • 🇯🇵 タングステン
                        • 🇵🇹 Tungstênio
                        • 🇷🇺 Вольфрам
                        • 🇪🇸 Wolframio
                        • 🇸🇪 Volfram

                        Tungsten: the essentials

                        Tungsten atoms have 74 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.12.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral tungsten is [Xe].4f14.5d4.6s2 and the term symbol of tungsten is 5D0.

                        Tungsten: description  

                        Pure tungsten is a steel-gray to tin-white metal. Tungsten has the highest melting point and lowest vapour pressure of all metals, and at temperatures over 1650°C has the highest tensile strength. The metal oxidises in air and must be protected at elevated temperatures. It has excellent corrosion resistance and is attacked only slightly by most mineral acids.

                        tungsten wire
                        Small and large samples of tungsten wire like this, as well as foil, sheet, wire straight cut lengths, insulated wire, and mesh (and tungsten alloys in wire form), can be purchased from via their web catalogue.

                        Tungsten: physical properties

                        More physical properties...

                        Tungsten: heat properties

                        More thermochemical properties...

                        Tungsten: atom sizes

                        More atomc size properties...

                        Tungsten: electronegativities

                        More electronegativity properties...

                        Tungsten: orbital properties

                        More orbital properties...

                        Tungsten: abundances

                        More geological data...

                        Tungsten: crystal structure

                        W crystal structure
                        The solid state structure of tungsten is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                        More crystallographic data...

                        Tungsten: biological data

                        网络斗地主下载Tungsten has a limited biological role. A number of enzymes (oxidoreductases) employ tungsten in a way related to molybdenum, (using tungsten.pterin complex). The structure of a tungstoenzyme aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductase is known (Protein Data Bank code 1AOR).

                        More biological data...

                        Tungsten: uses

                        Uses...

                        Tungsten: reactions

                        Reactions of tungsten as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                        View reactions of tungsten...

                        Tungsten: binary compounds

                        Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of tungsten where known.

                        View binary compounds...

                        Tungsten: compound properties

                        Bond strengths; lattice energies of tungsten halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                        View compound properties...

                        Tungsten: history

                        Tungsten was discovered by Fausto and Juan Jose de Elhuyar in 1783 at Spain. Origin of name: from the Swedish words "tung sten" meaning "heavy stone" (the origin of the symbol W is "wolfram ", named after the tungsten mineral wolframite).

                        More history...

                        Tungsten: isotopes

                        Isotope abundances of tungsten
                        Isotope abundances of tungsten with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                        Tungsten isotopes are used in several applications. W-180 is used for the production of the therapeutic radioisotope W-181. W-186 is used for the production of W-188 which is used in so-called Tungsten-Rhenium generators. The W-188 daughter Re-188 is (milked(网络斗地主下载 from there generators and used as a therapeutic radioisotope. W-184 has been used to study the elastic and inelastic scattering of heavy ions.

                        More isotope and NMR data...

                        Tungsten: isolation

                        Isolation网络斗地主下载: coming soon!

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