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                          2. ▸▸
                            • 🇬🇧 Thallium
                            • 🇨🇳 鉈
                            • 🇳🇱 Thallium
                            • 🇫🇷 Thallium
                            • 🇩🇪 Thallium
                            • 🇮🇱 תליום
                            • 🇮🇹 Tallio
                            • 🇯🇵 タリウム
                            • 🇵🇹 Tálio
                            • 🇷🇺 Таллий
                            • 🇪🇸 Talio
                            • 🇸🇪 Tallium

                            Thallium: the essentials

                            Thallium atoms have 81 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.18.3. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral thallium is [Xe].4f14.5d10.6s2.6p1 and the term symbol of thallium is 2P1/2.

                            Thallium: description  

                            When freshly exposed to air, thallium exhibits a metallic lustre, but soon develops a bluish-grey tinge, resembling lead in appearance. A heavy oxide builds up on thallium if left in air, and in the presence of water the hydroxide is formed. The metal is very soft and malleable. It can be cut with a knife.

                            The element and its compounds are toxic and should be handled carefully. Thallium may cause cancer.

                            thallium

                            Science and Ink cartoon for thallium
                            网络斗地主下载Cartoon by Nick D Kim (, used by permission).

                            Thallium: physical properties

                            More physical properties...

                            Thallium: heat properties

                            More thermochemical properties...

                            Thallium: atom sizes

                            More atomc size properties...

                            Thallium: electronegativities

                            More electronegativity properties...

                            Thallium: orbital properties

                            More orbital properties...

                            Thallium: abundances

                            More geological data...

                            Thallium: crystal structure

                            Tl crystal structure
                            The solid state structure of thallium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                            More crystallographic data...

                            Thallium: biological data

                            Thallium has no biological role. Thallium compounds are extremely toxic. Their effects are cumulative and they can be absorbed though the skin. Thallium poisoning takes several days to act and it affects the nervous system.

                            More biological data...

                            Thallium: uses

                            Uses...

                            Thallium: reactions

                            Reactions of thallium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                            View reactions of thallium...

                            Thallium: binary compounds

                            Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of thallium where known.

                            View binary compounds...

                            Thallium: compound properties

                            Bond strengths; lattice energies of thallium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                            View compound properties...

                            Thallium: history

                            Thallium was discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 at England. Origin of name: from the Greek word "thallos" meaning "green twig" or green shoot.

                            More history...

                            Thallium: isotopes

                            Isotope abundances of thallium
                            Isotope abundances of thallium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                            Thallium has two stable isotopes and one of these, Tl-203, is used to produce one of the (workhorses( of nuclear medicine: Tl-201. Tl-201 is used extensively for imaging and in particular for perfusion tests of the myocardium. These tests are done to determine the damage to the heart from a heart attack or from heart diseases. Tl205 has been proposed as an alternative target for the production of Tl-201. Tl-205 is also used in nuclear magnetic resonance research.

                            More isotope and NMR data...

                            Thallium: isolation

                            Isolation网络斗地主下载: thallium metal would not normally be made in the laboratory as it is available commercially. Crude thallium is present as a component in flue dust along with arsenic, cadmium, indium, germanium, lead, nickel, selenium, tellurium, and zinc. This is done by dissolving in dilute acid, precipitating out lead sulphate, and then adding HCl to precipitate thallium chloride, TlCl. Further purification can be achieve by electrolysis of soluble thallium salts.

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