网络斗地主下载

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                      • ▸▸
                        • 🇬🇧 Silicon
                        • 🇨🇳 矽
                        • 🇳🇱 Silicium
                        • 🇫🇷 Silicium
                        • 🇩🇪 Silicium
                        • 🇮🇱 צורן
                        • 🇮🇹 Silicio
                        • 🇯🇵 ケイ素
                        • 🇵🇹 Silício
                        • 🇷🇺 Кремний
                        • 🇪🇸 Silicio
                        • 🇸🇪 Kisel

                        Silicon: the essentials

                        Silicon atoms have 14 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.4. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral silicon is [Ne].3s2.3p2 and the term symbol of silicon is 3P0.

                        Silicon: description  

                        Silicon is present in the sun and stars and is a principal component of a class of meteorites known as aerolites. Silicon makes up 25.7% of the earth's crust by weight, and is the second most abundant element, exceeded only by oxygen. It is found largely as silicon oxides such as sand (silica), quartz, rock crystal, amethyst, agate, flint, jasper and opal. Silicon is found also in minerals such as asbestos, feldspar, clay and mica.

                        Silicon is important in plant and animal life. Diatoms in both fresh and salt water extract silica from the water to use as a component of their cell walls. Silicon is an important ingredient in steel. Silicon carbide is one of the most important abrasives. Workers in environments where silicaceous dust is breathed may develop a serious lung disease known as silicosis.

                        Hydrolysis and condensation of substituted chlorosilanes can be used to produce a very great number of polymeric products, or silicones. These range from liquids to hard, glasslike solids with many useful properties.

                        Elemental silicon transmits more than 95% of all wavelengths of infrared and and has been used in lasers to produce coherent light at 456 nm.

                        Silicon: physical properties

                        More physical properties...

                        Silicon: heat properties

                        More thermochemical properties...

                        Silicon: electronegativities

                        More electronegativity properties...

                        Silicon: orbital properties

                        More orbital properties...

                        Silicon: abundances

                        More geological data...

                        Silicon: crystal structure

                        Si crystal structure
                        The solid state structure of silicon is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                        More crystallographic data...

                        Silicon: biological data

                        Silicon is probably essential in higher plants and perhaps to mammals. Diatoms, some protozoa, some sponges, and some plants use silicon dioxide (SiO2) as a structural material. Silicon is known to be required by chicks and rats for growth and skeletal development. Silicon is not particularly toxic but finely divided silicates or silica cause major damage to lungs.

                        More biological data...

                        Silicon: uses

                        Uses...

                        Silicon: reactions

                        网络斗地主下载 Reactions of silicon as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                        View reactions of silicon...

                        Silicon: binary compounds

                        Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of silicon where known.

                        View binary compounds...

                        Silicon: compound properties

                        网络斗地主下载 Bond strengths; lattice energies of silicon halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                        View compound properties...

                        Silicon: history

                        Silicon was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1824 at Sweden. Origin of name: from the Latin word "silicis" meaning "flint".

                        More history...

                        Silicon: isotopes

                        Isotope abundances of silicon
                        Isotope abundances of silicon with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                        Silicon isotopes are used in a variety of applications. Si-28 has been suggested to improve the thermal conductivity of semiconductors. Si-29 is used extensively in NMR spectroscopy. Si-30 has been used to produce the radioisotope Si-31. Si-30 has also been used to study the self-diffusivity of Silicon and it has been used to study the isotope effect on superconductivity.

                        More isotope and NMR data...

                        Silicon: isolation

                        Isolation: there is normally no need to make silicon in the laboratory as it is readily available commercially. Silicon is readily available through the treatment of silica, SiO2, with pure graphite (as coke) in an electric furnace.

                        SiO2网络斗地主下载 + 2C → Si + 2CO

                        Under these conditions, silicon carbide, SiC, can form. However, provided the amount of SiO2 is kept high, silicon carbide may be eliminated.

                        2SiC + SiO2 → 3Si + 2CO

                        Very pure silicon can be made by the reaction of SiCl4 with hydrogen, followed by zone refining of the resultant silicon.

                        SiCl4 + 2H2网络斗地主下载 → Si + 4HCl

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