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                          • ▸▸
                            • 🇬🇧 Rubidium
                            • 🇨🇳 銣
                            • 🇳🇱 Rubidium
                            • 🇫🇷 Rubidium
                            • 🇩🇪 Rubidium
                            • 🇮🇱 רובידיום
                            • 🇮🇹 Rubidio
                            • 🇯🇵 ルビジウム
                            • 🇵🇹 Rubídio
                            • 🇷🇺 Рубидий
                            • 🇪🇸 Rubidio
                            • 🇸🇪 Rubidium

                            Rubidium: the essentials

                            Rubidium atoms have 37 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.8.1. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral rubidium is [Kr].5s1 and the term symbol of rubidium is 2S1/2.

                            Rubidium: description  

                            Rubidium can be liquid at ambient temperature, but only on a hot day given that its melting point is about 40°C. It is a soft, silvery-white metallic element of the alkali metals group (Group 1). It is one of the most most electropositive and alkaline elements. It ignites spontaneously in air and reacts violently with water, setting fire to the liberated hydrogen. As so with all the other alkali metals, it forms amalgams with mercury. It alloys with gold, caesium, sodium, and potassium. It colours a flame yellowish-violet.

                            Science and Ink cartoon for rubidium
                            网络斗地主下载Cartoon by Nick D Kim (, used by permission).

                            rubidium
                            Image adapted with permission from 's (U. North Texas, USA) Walking Tour of the elements CD.

                            Rubidium: physical properties

                            More physical properties...

                            Rubidium: heat properties

                            More thermochemical properties...

                            Rubidium: atom sizes

                            More atomc size properties...

                            Rubidium: electronegativities

                            More electronegativity properties...

                            Rubidium: orbital properties

                            More orbital properties...

                            Rubidium: abundances

                            More geological data...

                            Rubidium: crystal structure

                            Rb crystal structure
                            The solid state structure of rubidium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                            More crystallographic data...

                            Rubidium: biological data

                            网络斗地主下载Rubidium has no biological role but is said to stimulate the metabolism. It can accumulate ahead of potassium in muscle.

                            More biological data...

                            Rubidium: uses

                            Uses...

                            Rubidium: reactions

                            Reactions of rubidium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                            View reactions of rubidium...

                            Rubidium: binary compounds

                            Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of rubidium where known.

                            View binary compounds...

                            Rubidium: compound properties

                            Bond strengths; lattice energies of rubidium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                            View compound properties...

                            Rubidium: history

                            Rubidium was discovered by Robert Bunsen, Gustav Kirchhoff in 1861 at Germany. Origin of name: from the Latin word "rubidius" meaning "dark red" or "deepest red".

                            More history...

                            Rubidium: isotopes

                            Isotope abundances of rubidium
                            Isotope abundances of rubidium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                            More isotope and NMR data...

                            Rubidium: isolation

                            Isolation: rubidium would not normally be made in the laboratory as it is available commercially. All syntheses require an electrolytic step as it is so difficult to add an electron to the poorly electronegative rubidium ion Rb+.

                            Rubidium is not made by the same method as sodium as might have been expected. This is because the rubidium metal, once formed by electrolysis of liquid rubidium chloride (RbCl), is too soluble in the molten salt.

                            cathode: Rb+(l) + e- → Rb (l)

                            anode: Cl-(l) → 1/2Cl2 (g) + e-

                            Instead, it is made by the reaction of metallic sodium with hot molten rubidium chloride.

                            网络斗地主下载Na + RbCl ⇌ Rb + NaCl

                            This is an equilibrium reaction and under these conditions the rubidium is highly volatile and removed from the system in a form relatively free from sodium impurities, allowing the reaction to proceed.

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