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                            ▸▸
                            • 🇬🇧 Rhodium
                            • 🇨🇳 銠
                            • 🇳🇱 Rhodium
                            • 🇫🇷 Rhodium
                            • 🇩🇪 Rhodium
                            • 🇮🇱 רודיום
                            • 🇮🇹 Rodio
                            • 🇯🇵 ロジウム
                            • 🇵🇹 Ródio
                            • 🇷🇺 Родий
                            • 🇪🇸 Rodio
                            • 🇸🇪 Rodium

                            Rhodium: the essentials

                            Rhodium atoms have 45 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.16.1. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral rhodium is [Kr].4d85s1 and the term symbol of rhodium is 4F9/2.

                            Rhodium: description  

                            网络斗地主下载Rhodium metal is silvery white. Rhodium has a higher melting point and lower density than platinum. It has a high reflectance and is hard and durable. Upon heating it turns to the oxide when red and at higher temperatures turns back to the element. It is a major component of industrial catalytic systems such as the BP-Monsanto process.

                            Ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum together make up a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGM).

                            rhodium wire
                            网络斗地主下载Rhodium wire.

                            Rhodium: physical properties

                            More physical properties...

                            Rhodium: heat properties

                            More thermochemical properties...

                            Rhodium: electronegativities

                            More electronegativity properties...

                            Rhodium: orbital properties

                            More orbital properties...

                            Rhodium: abundances

                            More geological data...

                            Rhodium: crystal structure

                            Rh crystal structure
                            The solid state structure of rhodium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                            More crystallographic data...

                            Rhodium: biological data

                            网络斗地主下载Rhodium has no biological role.

                            More biological data...

                            Rhodium: uses

                            Uses...

                            Rhodium: reactions

                            Reactions of rhodium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                            View reactions of rhodium...

                            Rhodium: binary compounds

                            网络斗地主下载 Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of rhodium where known.

                            View binary compounds...

                            Rhodium: compound properties

                            网络斗地主下载 Bond strengths; lattice energies of rhodium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                            View compound properties...

                            Rhodium: history

                            Rhodium was discovered by William Hyde Wollaston in 1803 at England. Origin of name: from the Greek word "rhodon" meaning "rose".

                            More history...

                            Rhodium: isotopes

                            Isotope abundances of rhodium
                            Isotope abundances of rhodium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                            More isotope and NMR data...

                            Rhodium: isolation

                            Isolation: it would not normally be necessary to make a sample of rhodium in the laboratory as the metal is available, at a price, commercially. The industrial extraction of rhodium is complex as the metal occurs in ores mixed with other metals such as palladium, silver, platinum, and gold. Sometimes extraction of the precious metals such as rhodium, platinum and palladium is the main focus of a partiular industrial operation while in other cases it is a byproduct. The extraction is complex because of the other metals present and only worthwhile since rhodium is the basis of very important catalysts in industry.

                            Preliminary treatment of the ore or base metal byproduct is required to remove silver, gold, palladium, and platinum. The resulting residue is melted with sodium bisulphate (NaHSO4) and the resulting mixture extracted water to give a solution containing rhodium sulphate, Rh2(SO4)3. The rhodium is precipitated out as the hydroxide by addition of sodium hydroxide, NaOH, and redissolved in hydrochloric acid, HCl, to give H3RhCl6. This is treated with NaNO2 and NH4Cl to form a precipitate of the rhodium complex (NH4)3[Rh(NO2)6]. Dissolution of the precipitate in HCl gives a solution of pure (NH4)3RhCl6. Evaporation to dryness and burning under hydrogen gas gives pure rhodium.

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