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            Abundance in Earth's crust (by weight)

            These data reflect the average composition of continental crustal rocks. Units are parts per billion by weight.

            Data given in different sources vary quite widely, reflecting the difficulty in assessing these numbers. Values given here are estimates of the average composition of continental crust and are derived by a consensus and averaging process for data abstracted from references 1-8. Values for the more rare elements are probably accurate to within an order of magnitude. Values in any particular location may be very different from those given here.

            Image showing periodicity of abundance in Earth's crust (by weight) for group 11 chemical elements.
            Image showing periodicity of abundance in Earth's crust (by weight) for group 11 chemical elements.

            Units

            ppb by weight

            Notes

            The units used in WebElements for all abundance data are ppb by weight which means parts per billion by weight, that is mg tonne-3 or mg per 1000 kg. All abundance data are also网络斗地主下载 presented as ppb by atoms, which means atoms of the element per billion atoms.

            The reason for rescaling all data is as follows. It is common to see, say, solar abundances expressed as the number of atoms of the element relative to a scale upon which the abundance of hydrogen is defined as 1012. This makes comparison with, say, crustal abundances difficult, since crustal abundances are often expressed in terms of parts per million by weight. Hence a common scale is used throughout and I chose ppb as this gives manageable numbers for most elements.

            网络斗地主下载For access to other abundance data as ppb by weight, select from:

            For access to other abundance data as ppb by atoms, select from:

            Literature sources

            1. W.W. Porterfield in Inorganic chemistry, a unified approach, Addison Wesley Publishing Co., Reading Massachusetts, USA, 1984.
            2. I.S. Butler and J.F. Harrod in Inorganic Chemistry, Principles and Applications, Benjamin Cummings, California, USA, 1989.
            3. G.W.C. Kaye and T.H. Laby in Tables of physical and chemical constants, Longman, London, UK, 15th edition, 1993.
            4. N.N. Greenwood and A. Earnshaw in , 2nd edition, Butterworth, UK, 1997.
            5. J.E. Huheey, E.A. Keiter, and R.L. Keiter in , 4th edition, HarperCollins, New York, USA, 1993.
            6. P.A. Cox in , Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1989.
            7. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology, 7th ed., 1992, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.
            8. A.M. James and M.P. Lord in Macmillan's Chemical and Physical Data, Macmillan, London, UK, 1992.
            Explore the element of your choice through this periodic table.
            1 2   3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
            1
            2
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            8
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            11
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            S
            17
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            *
            71
            72
            73
            74
            75
            76
            77
            78
            79
            80
            81
            82
            83
            84
            85
            86
            87
            88
            **
            103
            104
            105
            106
            107
            108
            109
            110
            111
            112
            113
            114
            115
            116
            117
            118
             
            *Lanthanoids *
            57
            58
            59
            60
            61
            62
            63
            64
            65
            66
            67
            68
            69
            70
            **Actinoids **
            89
            90
            91
            92
            93
            94
            95
            96
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            99
            100
            101
            102

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