网络斗地主下载

    1. <form id='s05ft'></form>
        <bdo id='s05ft'><sup id='s05ft'><div id='s05ft'><bdo id='s05ft'></bdo></div></sup></bdo>

            <small id='pf4rh'></small><noframes id='pf4rh'>

          • <tfoot id='pf4rh'></tfoot>

              <legend id='pf4rh'><style id='pf4rh'><dir id='pf4rh'><q id='pf4rh'></q></dir></style></legend>
              <i id='pf4rh'><tr id='pf4rh'><dt id='pf4rh'><q id='pf4rh'><span id='pf4rh'><b id='pf4rh'><form id='pf4rh'><ins id='pf4rh'></ins><ul id='pf4rh'></ul><sub id='pf4rh'></sub></form><legend id='pf4rh'></legend><bdo id='pf4rh'><pre id='pf4rh'><center id='pf4rh'></center></pre></bdo></b><th id='pf4rh'></th></span></q></dt></tr></i><div id='pf4rh'><tfoot id='pf4rh'></tfoot><dl id='pf4rh'><fieldset id='pf4rh'></fieldset></dl></div>

                  <bdo id='pf4rh'></bdo><ul id='pf4rh'></ul>

                    <dir id='pmtaw'><del id='pmtaw'><del id='pmtaw'></del><pre id='pmtaw'><pre id='pmtaw'><option id='pmtaw'><address id='pmtaw'></address><bdo id='pmtaw'><tr id='pmtaw'><acronym id='pmtaw'><pre id='pmtaw'></pre></acronym><div id='pmtaw'></div></tr></bdo></option></pre><small id='pmtaw'><address id='pmtaw'><u id='pmtaw'><legend id='pmtaw'><option id='pmtaw'><abbr id='pmtaw'></abbr><li id='pmtaw'><pre id='pmtaw'></pre></li></option></legend><select id='pmtaw'></select></u></address></small></pre></del><sup id='pmtaw'></sup><blockquote id='pmtaw'><dt id='pmtaw'></dt></blockquote><blockquote id='pmtaw'></blockquote></dir><tt id='pmtaw'></tt><u id='pmtaw'><tt id='pmtaw'><form id='pmtaw'></form></tt><td id='pmtaw'><dt id='pmtaw'></dt></td></u>
                  1. <code id='pmtaw'><i id='pmtaw'><q id='pmtaw'><legend id='pmtaw'><pre id='pmtaw'><style id='pmtaw'><acronym id='pmtaw'><i id='pmtaw'><form id='pmtaw'><option id='pmtaw'><center id='pmtaw'></center></option></form></i></acronym></style><tt id='pmtaw'></tt></pre></legend></q></i></code><center id='pmtaw'></center>

                      <dd id='pmtaw'></dd>

                        <style id='pmtaw'></style><sub id='pmtaw'><dfn id='pmtaw'><abbr id='pmtaw'><big id='pmtaw'><bdo id='pmtaw'></bdo></big></abbr></dfn></sub>
                        <dir id='pmtaw'></dir>
                      1. ▸▸
                        • 🇬🇧 Palladium
                        • 🇨🇳 鈀
                        • 🇳🇱 Palladium
                        • 🇫🇷 Palladium
                        • 🇩🇪 Palladium
                        • 🇮🇱 פלדיום
                        • 🇮🇹 Palladio
                        • 🇯🇵 パラジウム
                        • 🇵🇹 Paládio
                        • 🇷🇺 Палладий
                        • 🇪🇸 Paladio
                        • 🇸🇪 Palladium

                        Palladium: the essentials

                        Palladium atoms have 46 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.18.0. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral palladium is [Kr].4d10 and the term symbol of palladium is 1S0.

                        Palladium: description  

                        Palladium is a steel-white metal, does not tarnish in air, and is the least dense and lowest melting of the platinum group metals. When annealed, it is soft and ductile. Cold working increases its strength and hardness. It is used in some watch springs.

                        Ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum together make up a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGM).

                        At room temperatures the metal has the unusual property of absorbing up to 900 times its own volume of hydrogen. Hydrogen readily diffuses through heated palladium and this provides a means of purifying the gas.

                        palladium sheet
                        网络斗地主下载This sample is from , an attractive and safely packaged collection of the 92 naturally occurring elements that is available for sale.

                        Palladium: physical properties

                        More physical properties...

                        Palladium: heat properties

                        More thermochemical properties...

                        Palladium: atom sizes

                        More atomc size properties...

                        Palladium: electronegativities

                        More electronegativity properties...

                        Palladium: orbital properties

                        More orbital properties...

                        Palladium: abundances

                        More geological data...

                        Palladium: crystal structure

                        Pd crystal structure
                        The solid state structure of palladium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                        More crystallographic data...

                        Palladium: biological data

                        Palladium has no biological role. Palladium chloride was formerly prescribed as a treatment for tuberculosis at the rate of 0.065 g per day (approximately 1 mg kg-1) without too many bad side effects.

                        More biological data...

                        Palladium: uses

                        Uses...

                        Palladium: reactions

                        Reactions of palladium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                        View reactions of palladium...

                        Palladium: binary compounds

                        网络斗地主下载 Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of palladium where known.

                        View binary compounds...

                        Palladium: compound properties

                        Bond strengths; lattice energies of palladium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                        View compound properties...

                        Palladium: history

                        Palladium was discovered by William Hyde Wollaston in 1803 at England. Origin of name: named after the asteroid "Pallas" which was discovered at about the same time and from the Greek name "Pallas", goddess of wisdom.

                        More history...

                        Palladium: isotopes

                        Isotope abundances of palladium
                        Isotope abundances of palladium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                        网络斗地主下载Pd-104 is used for the production of radioactive Pd-103 seeds which are used to fight prostate cancer. Pd-103 can also be made from Pd-102. Other Pd isotopes such as Pd-110 and Pd-108 have been used in physical experiments such as research into the decay of Nd-137 and nuclear fusion phenomena. Pd-108 can also be used for the production of radioactive Pd-109 which is used for cancer therapy.

                        More isotope and NMR data...

                        Palladium: isolation

                        Isolation: it would not normally be necessary to make a sample of palladium in the laboratory as the metal is available commercially. The industrial extraction of palladium is complex as the metal occurs in ores mixed with other metals such as platinum. Sometimes extraction of the precious metals such as platinum and palladium is the main focus of a partiular industrial operation while in other cases it is a byproduct. The extraction is complex and only worthwhile since palladium is the basis of important catalysts in industry.

                        Preliminary treatment of the ore or base metal byproduct with aqua regia (a mixture of hydrochloric acid, HCl, and nitric acid, HNO3) gives a solution containing complexes of gold and platinum as well as H2PdCl4. The gold is removed from this solution as a precipitate by treatment with iron chloride (FeCl2). The platinum is precipitated out as (NH4)2PtCl6 on treatment with NH4Cl, leaving H2PdCl4 in solution. The palladium is precipitated out by treatment with ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH, and HCl as the complex PdCl2(NH3)2网络斗地主下载. This yields palladium metal by burning.

                        在线赌博最新 老虎机大全---网络斗地主下载_欢迎您 疯狂牛牛安卓---网络斗地主下载_欢迎您 娱乐正规网址-Welcome 乐酷棋牌---网络斗地主下载_欢迎您