网络斗地主下载

  • <tr id='ipwzl'><strong id='ipwzl'></strong><small id='ipwzl'></small><button id='ipwzl'></button><li id='ipwzl'><noscript id='ipwzl'><big id='ipwzl'></big><dt id='ipwzl'></dt></noscript></li></tr><ol id='ipwzl'><option id='ipwzl'><table id='ipwzl'><blockquote id='ipwzl'><tbody id='ipwzl'></tbody></blockquote></table></option></ol><u id='ipwzl'></u><kbd id='ipwzl'><kbd id='ipwzl'></kbd></kbd>

    <code id='ipwzl'><strong id='ipwzl'></strong></code>

    <fieldset id='ipwzl'></fieldset>
          <span id='ipwzl'></span>

              <ins id='ipwzl'></ins>
              <acronym id='ipwzl'><em id='ipwzl'></em><td id='ipwzl'><div id='ipwzl'></div></td></acronym><address id='ipwzl'><big id='ipwzl'><big id='ipwzl'></big><legend id='ipwzl'></legend></big></address>

              <i id='ipwzl'><div id='ipwzl'><ins id='ipwzl'></ins></div></i>
              <i id='ipwzl'></i>
            1. <dl id='ipwzl'></dl>

                1. <form id='t5tj0'></form>
                    <bdo id='t5tj0'><sup id='t5tj0'><div id='t5tj0'><bdo id='t5tj0'></bdo></div></sup></bdo>

                        ▸▸
                        • 🇬🇧 Osmium
                        • 🇨🇳 鋨
                        • 🇳🇱 Osmium
                        • 🇫🇷 Osmium
                        • 🇩🇪 Osmium
                        • 🇮🇱 אוסמיום
                        • 🇮🇹 Osmio
                        • 🇯🇵 オスミウム
                        • 🇵🇹 Ósmio
                        • 🇷🇺 Осмий
                        • 🇪🇸 Osmio
                        • 🇸🇪 Osmium

                        Osmium: the essentials

                        Osmium atoms have 76 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.14.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral osmium is [Xe].4f14.5d6.6s2 and the term symbol of osmium is 5D4.

                        Osmium: description  

                        Ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium, and platinum together make up a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGM).

                        Osmium metal is lustrous, bluish white, extremely hard, and brittle even at high temperatures. It has the highest melting point and lowest vapour pressure of the platinum group. The metal is very difficult to fabricate, but the powder can be sintered in a hydrogen atmosphere at a temperature of 2000°C. The solid metal is not affected by air at room temperature, but the powdered or spongy metal slowly gives off osmium tetroxide, which is a powerful oxidising agent and has a strong smell. The tetroxide is highly toxic, and boils at 130°C (760 mm). Concentrations in air as low as 10-7 g m-3 can cause lung congestion, skin damage, or eye damage.

                        osmium
                        网络斗地主下载This sample is from , an attractive and safely packaged collection of the 92 naturally occurring elements that is available for sale.

                        Osmium: physical properties

                        More physical properties...

                        Osmium: heat properties

                        More thermochemical properties...

                        Osmium: electronegativities

                        More electronegativity properties...

                        Osmium: orbital properties

                        More orbital properties...

                        Osmium: abundances

                        More geological data...

                        Osmium: crystal structure

                        Os crystal structure
                        The solid state structure of osmium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                        More crystallographic data...

                        Osmium: biological data

                        Osmium has no biological role. Osmium oxide, OsO4, is highly toxic, and boils at 130°C (760 mm). Concentrations in air as low as 10-7 g m-3 can cause lung congestion, skin damage, and severe eye damage.

                        More biological data...

                        Osmium: uses

                        Uses...

                        Osmium: reactions

                        Reactions of osmium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                        View reactions of osmium...

                        Osmium: binary compounds

                        网络斗地主下载 Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of osmium where known.

                        View binary compounds...

                        Osmium: compound properties

                        Bond strengths; lattice energies of osmium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                        View compound properties...

                        Osmium: history

                        Osmium was discovered by Smithson Tennant in 1803 at England. Origin of name: from the Greek word "osme" meaning "smell".

                        More history...

                        Osmium: isotopes

                        Isotope abundances of osmium
                        Isotope abundances of osmium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                        网络斗地主下载Osmium isotopes are used for the production of radioisotopes and in scientific experiments. Os-192 can be used for the production of the medical radioisotope Pt-195m. Os-184 is used for the production of the radioisotope Os-185. Os-191 can be used for the production of the radioisotopes Os-192. Os-190 has been used as a tracer to determine Os abundance in meteorites using isotope dilution ICP-MS. Finally, Os-189 has been used to experiment with nuclear excitation by electronic transition.

                        More isotope and NMR data...

                        Osmium: isolation

                        Isolation: it would not normally be necessary to make a sample of osmium in the laboratory as the metal is available, at a price, commercially. The industrial extraction of osmium is complex as the metal occurs in ores mixed with other metals such as ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, silver, platinum, and gold. Sometimes extraction of the precious metals such as iridium, rhodium, platinum and palladium is the main focus of a partiular industrial operation while in other cases it is a byproduct. The extraction is complex because of the other metals present and only worthwhile since osmium is useful as a specialist metal and is the basis of some catalysts in industry.

                        Preliminary treatment of the ore or base metal byproduct is required to remove silver, gold, palladium, and platinum. The residue is melted with sodium bisulphate (NaHSO4) and the resulting mixture extracted with water to give a solution containing rhodium sulphate, Rh2(SO4)3. The insoluble residue contains the osmium. The residue is melted with Na2O2 and extracted into water to extract the ruthenium and osmium salts (including [RuO4]2- and [OsO4(OH)2]2-). The residue contains iridium oxide, IrO2. Reaction of the salt with chlorine gas gives the volatile oxides RuO4 and OsO4. The osmium oxide is dissolved by treatment with alcoholic sodium hydroxide to form Na2[OsO2(OH)4], and the osmium precipiated out as pure OsCl2O2(NH3)4 by treatment with NH4Cl. Evaporation to dryness and burning under hydrogen gas gives pure osmium.

                        在线赌博最新 老虎机大全---网络斗地主下载_欢迎您 疯狂牛牛安卓---网络斗地主下载_欢迎您 娱乐正规网址-Welcome 乐酷棋牌---网络斗地主下载_欢迎您