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            1. ▸▸
              • 🇬🇧 Nitrogen
              • 🇨🇳 氮
              • 🇳🇱 Stikstof
              • 🇫🇷 Azote
              • 🇩🇪 Stickstoff
              • 🇮🇱 חנקן
              • 🇮🇹 Azoto
              • 🇯🇵 窒素
              • 🇵🇹 Nitrogênio
              • 🇷🇺 Азот
              • 🇪🇸 Nitrógeno
              • 🇸🇪 Kväve

              Nitrogen: the essentials

              Nitrogen atoms have 7 electrons and the shell structure is 2.5. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral nitrogen is [He].2s2.2p3 and the term symbol of nitrogen is 4S3/2.

              Nitrogen: description  

              网络斗地主下载Nitrogen is a Group 15 element. Nitrogen makes up about 78% of the atmosphere by volume but the atmosphere of Mars contains less than 3% nitrogen. The element seemed so inert that Lavoisier named it azote, meaning "without life". However, its compounds are vital components of foods, fertilizers, and explosives. Nitrogen gas is colourless, odourless, and generally inert. As a liquid it is also colourless and odourless.

              When nitrogen is heated, it combines directly with magnesium, lithium, or calcium. When mixed with oxygen and subjected to electric sparks, it forms nitric oxide (NO) and then the dioxide (NO2). When heated under pressure with hydrogen in the presence of a suitable catalyst , ammonia forms (Haber process). Nitrogen is "fixed" from the atmosphere by bacteria in the roots of certain plants such as clover. Hence the usefulness of clover in crop rotation.

              nitrogen
              Image adapted with permission from 's (U. North Texas, USA) Walking Tour of the elements CD.

              Nitrogen: physical properties

              More physical properties...

              Nitrogen: heat properties

              More thermochemical properties...

              Nitrogen: electronegativities

              More electronegativity properties...

              Nitrogen: orbital properties

              More orbital properties...

              Nitrogen: abundances

              More geological data...

              Nitrogen: crystal structure

              N crystal structure
              The solid state structure of nitrogen is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

              More crystallographic data...

              Nitrogen: biological data

              Nitrogen is a key component of biological molecules such as proteins (which are made from amino acids, and nucleic acids. The nitrogen cycle in nature is very important.

              More biological data...

              Nitrogen: uses

              Uses...

              Nitrogen: reactions

              网络斗地主下载 Reactions of nitrogen as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

              View reactions of nitrogen...

              Nitrogen: binary compounds

              网络斗地主下载 Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of nitrogen where known.

              View binary compounds...

              Nitrogen: compound properties

              Bond strengths; lattice energies of nitrogen halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

              View compound properties...

              Nitrogen: history

              Nitrogen was discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772 at Scotland. Origin of name: from the Greek words "nitron genes" meaning "nitre" and "forming" and the Latin word "nitrum" (nitre is a common name for potassium nitrate, KNO#).

              More history...

              Nitrogen: isotopes

              Isotope abundances of nitrogen
              Isotope abundances of nitrogen with the most intense signal set to 100%.

              网络斗地主下载Nitrogen has two isotopes, N-14 and N-15, both of which are used in various applications. N-15 is used for the production of the radioisotope O-15 which is used in PET. N-15 is also used to study the uptake of Nitrogen in plants and the metabolism of proteins in the human body. N-14 is used for the production of the PET radioisotope C-11. It can also be used for the production of the PET radioisotopes N-13 and O-15.

              More isotope and NMR data...

              Nitrogen: isolation

              Isolation: there is never any need to make nitrogen in the laboratory as it is readily available commercially or through in-house air liquefaction plants. However the decomposition of sodium azide is one route to N2网络斗地主下载 and decomposition is ammonium dichromate is another. Both reactions must only be carried out under controlled conditions by a professional.

              NaN3 (300°C) → 2Na + 3N2

              (NH4)2Cr2O7 → N2 + Cr2O3 + 4H2O

              Nitrogen is made on massive scale by liquefaction of air and fractional distillation of the resulting liquid air to separate out oxygen and other gases. Very high purity nitrogen is available by this route.

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