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      1. ▸▸
        • 🇬🇧 Manganese
        • 🇨🇳 錳
        • 🇳🇱 Mangaan
        • 🇫🇷 Manganèse
        • 🇩🇪 Mangan
        • 🇮🇱 מנגן
        • 🇮🇹 Manganese
        • 🇯🇵 マンガン
        • 🇵🇹 Manganês
        • 🇷🇺 Марганец
        • 🇪🇸 Manganeso
        • 🇸🇪 Mangan

        Manganese: the essentials

        Manganese atoms have 25 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.13.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral manganese is [Ar].3d5.4s2 and the term symbol of manganese is 6S5/2.

        Manganese: description  

        Manganese metal is gray-white, resembling iron, but is harder and very brittle. The metal is reactive chemically, and decomposes cold water slowly. Manganese is widely distributed throughout the animal kingdom. It is an important trace element and may be essential for utilisation of vitamin B. Manganese is present in quantity the floor of oceans. It is an important component of steel.

        manganese
        Image adapted with permission from 's (U. North Texas, USA) Walking Tour of the elements CD.

        Science and Ink cartoon for manganese
        Cartoon by Nick D Kim (, used by permission).

        Manganese: physical properties

        More physical properties...

        Manganese: heat properties

        More thermochemical properties...

        Manganese: atom sizes

        More atomc size properties...

        Manganese: electronegativities

        More electronegativity properties...

        Manganese: orbital properties

        More orbital properties...

        Manganese: abundances

        More geological data...

        Manganese: crystal structure

        Mn crystal structure
        The solid state structure of manganese is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

        More crystallographic data...

        Manganese: biological data

        Manganese compounds are essential to life. They are essential for the action of some enzymes. Soil deficiencies lead to infertility in mammals and to bone malformation in growing chicks.

        More biological data...

        Manganese: uses

        Uses...

        Manganese: reactions

        网络斗地主下载 Reactions of manganese as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

        View reactions of manganese...

        Manganese: binary compounds

        Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of manganese where known.

        View binary compounds...

        Manganese: compound properties

        Bond strengths; lattice energies of manganese halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

        View compound properties...

        Manganese: history

        Manganese was discovered by Johann Gahn in 1774 at Sweden. Origin of name: from the Latin word "magnes" meaning "magnet", or "magnesia nigri" meaning "black magnesia" (MnO2).

        More history...

        Manganese: isotopes

        Isotope abundances of manganese
        Isotope abundances of manganese with the most intense signal set to 100%.

        More isotope and NMR data...

        Manganese: isolation

        Isolation: it is not normally necessary to make manganese in the laboratory as it is available commercially. Nearly all manganese produced commercially is used in the steel industry as ferromanganese. This made by the reduction of iron oxide, Fe2O3, and managanese dioxide, MnO2, in appropriate proportions with carbon (as coke) in a blast furnace. Pure manganese is available through the electrolysis of manganese sulphate, MnSO4,

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