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                      • ▸▸
                        • 🇬🇧 Lead
                        • 🇨🇳 鉛
                        • 🇳🇱 Lood
                        • 🇫🇷 Plomb
                        • 🇩🇪 Blei
                        • 🇮🇱 עופרת
                        • 🇮🇹 Piombo
                        • 🇯🇵 鉛
                        • 🇵🇹 Conduzir
                        • 🇷🇺 Свинец
                        • 🇪🇸 Plomo
                        • 🇸🇪 Bly

                        Lead: the essentials

                        Lead atoms have 82 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.18.4. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral lead is [Xe].4f14.5d10.6s2.6p2 and the term symbol of lead is 3P0.

                        Lead: description  

                        Lead is a bluish-white lustrous metal. It is very soft, highly malleable, ductile, and a relatively poor conductor of electricity. It is very resistant to corrosion but tarnishes upon exposure to air. Lead pipes bearing the insignia of Roman emperors, used as drains from the baths, are still in service. Alloys include pewter and solder. Tetraethyl lead (PbEt4网络斗地主下载) is still used in some grades of petrol (gasoline) but is being phased out on environmental grounds.

                        Lead isotopes are the end products of each of the three series of naturally occurring radioactive elements.

                        lead bar in Cluedo

                        Science and Ink cartoon for lead
                        网络斗地主下载Cartoon by Nick D Kim (, used by permission).

                        Lead: physical properties

                        More physical properties...

                        Lead: heat properties

                        More thermochemical properties...

                        Lead: electronegativities

                        More electronegativity properties...

                        Lead: orbital properties

                        More orbital properties...

                        Lead: abundances

                        More geological data...

                        Lead: crystal structure

                        Pb crystal structure
                        The solid state structure of lead is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                        More crystallographic data...

                        Lead: biological data

                        网络斗地主下载Lead has no biological role. Lead affects the gut, central nervous system and causes anaemia.

                        More biological data...

                        Lead: uses

                        Uses...

                        Lead: reactions

                        Reactions of lead as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                        View reactions of lead...

                        Lead: binary compounds

                        网络斗地主下载 Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of lead where known.

                        View binary compounds...

                        Lead: compound properties

                        Bond strengths; lattice energies of lead halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                        View compound properties...

                        Lead: history

                        Lead was discovered by known since ancient times in unknown at not known. Origin of name: from the Anglo-Saxon word "lead; Latin, plumbum" (the origin of the symbol Pb is the Latin word "plumbum" meaning "liquid silver".

                        More history...

                        Lead: isotopes

                        Isotope abundances of lead
                        Isotope abundances of lead with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                        Lead isotopes are used for medical and scientific purposes. Pb-206 and Pb-207 can both be used to produce the medical radioisotopes Bi-205 and Bi-206. Pb-204, Pb-206 and Pb-207 are used to measure lead levels in blood. Pb-208 has been used to produce neutron-rich isotopes of W and Lu. Pb-208 has also been used to study the configuration of neutron stars. Several Lead isotopes have also been used as target in the production of super heavy elements.

                        More isotope and NMR data...

                        Lead: isolation

                        Isolation网络斗地主下载: there is usually little need to make lead metal in the laboratory as it is so cheap and readily available. Lead is isolated from the sulphide, PbS. The process involves burning in a restricted air flow followed by reduction of the resulting oxide PbO with carbon.

                        PbS + 3/2O2 → PbO + SO2

                        PbO + C → Pb + CO

                        PbO + CO → Pb + CO2

                        This gives lead usually contaminated with metals such as antimony, arsenic, copper, gold, silver, tin, and zinc. A fairly complex process is used to strip out these impurities.

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