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                              1. ▸▸
                                • 🇬🇧 Hafnium
                                • 🇨🇳 鉿
                                • 🇳🇱 Hafnium
                                • 🇫🇷 Hafnium
                                • 🇩🇪 Hafnium
                                • 🇮🇱 הפניום
                                • 🇮🇹 Afnio
                                • 🇯🇵 ハフニウム
                                • 🇵🇹 Háfnio
                                • 🇷🇺 Гафний
                                • 🇪🇸 Hafnio
                                • 🇸🇪 Hafnium

                                Hafnium: the essentials

                                Hafnium atoms have 72 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.10.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral hafnium is [Xe].4f14.5d2.6s2 and the term symbol of hafnium is 3F2.

                                Hafnium: description  

                                Most zirconium minerals contain 1 to 3% hafnium. Hafnium is a ductile metal with a brilliant silver lustre. Its properties are influenced considerably by the impurities of zirconium present. Of all the elements, zirconium and hafnium are two of the most difficult to separate. Hafnium is a Group 4 transition element.

                                Because hafnium has a good absorption cross section for thermal neutrons (almost 600 times that of zirconium), has excellent mechanical properties, and is extremely corrosion resistant, it is used for nuclear reactor control rods.

                                Hafnium carbide is the most refractory binary composition known, and the nitride is the most refractory metal nitride (m.p. 3310°C).

                                hafnium sheet
                                Hafnium foil.

                                Hafnium: physical properties

                                More physical properties...

                                Hafnium: heat properties

                                More thermochemical properties...

                                Hafnium: electronegativities

                                More electronegativity properties...

                                Hafnium: orbital properties

                                More orbital properties...

                                Hafnium: abundances

                                More geological data...

                                Hafnium: crystal structure

                                Hf crystal structure
                                The solid state structure of hafnium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                                More crystallographic data...

                                Hafnium: biological data

                                网络斗地主下载Hafnium has no biological role.

                                More biological data...

                                Hafnium: uses

                                Uses...

                                Hafnium: reactions

                                网络斗地主下载 Reactions of hafnium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                                View reactions of hafnium...

                                Hafnium: binary compounds

                                Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of hafnium where known.

                                View binary compounds...

                                Hafnium: compound properties

                                Bond strengths; lattice energies of hafnium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                                View compound properties...

                                Hafnium: history

                                Hafnium was discovered by Dirk Coster and George Charles von Hevesy in 1923 at Denmark. Origin of name: from the Latin name "Hafnia" meaning "Copenhagen".

                                More history...

                                Hafnium: isotopes

                                Isotope abundances of hafnium
                                Isotope abundances of hafnium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                                网络斗地主下载Hafnium isotopes have several applications. Hf-180 is used for the production of the radioisotope Hf-181 while Hf-180 is used for the production of the radioisotope Ta-179, which has a medical application. The second isomer of Hf-178 (Hf-178m2) exhibits a very high excitation energy and it has been suggested for use in gamma ray lasers.

                                More isotope and NMR data...

                                Hafnium: isolation

                                Isolation: hafnium extraction is always associated with its removal from zirconium as it is a contaminant of all zirconium minerals. Solvent extraction methods are used ot spearate the two metals but the process is not easy. These make use of the differential solubilities of the metal thiocyantes (thiocyanate is SCN-网络斗地主下载) in methyl isobutyl ketone.

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