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                        • ▸▸
                          • 🇬🇧 Germanium
                          • 🇨🇳 鍺
                          • 🇳🇱 Germanium
                          • 🇫🇷 Germanium
                          • 🇩🇪 Germanium
                          • 🇮🇱 גרמניום
                          • 🇮🇹 Germanio
                          • 🇯🇵 ゲルマニウム
                          • 🇵🇹 Germânio
                          • 🇷🇺 Германий
                          • 🇪🇸 Germanio
                          • 🇸🇪 Germanium

                          Germanium: the essentials

                          Germanium atoms have 32 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.4. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral germanium is [Ar].3d10.4s2.4p2 and the term symbol of germanium is 3P0.

                          Germanium: description  

                          Germanium is a gray-white semi-metal, and in its pure state is crystalline and brittle, retaining its lustre in air at room temperature. It is a very important semiconductor material. Zone-refining techniques have led to production of crystalline germanium for semiconductor use with an impurity of only one part in 10-10.

                          网络斗地主下载Certain germanium compounds have a low mammalian toxicity, but a clear activity against certain bacteria, which makes them of interest as chemotherapeutic agents.

                          germanium

                          Germanium: physical properties

                          More physical properties...

                          Germanium: heat properties

                          More thermochemical properties...

                          Germanium: atom sizes

                          More atomc size properties...

                          Germanium: electronegativities

                          More electronegativity properties...

                          Germanium: orbital properties

                          More orbital properties...

                          Germanium: abundances

                          More geological data...

                          Germanium: crystal structure

                          Ge crystal structure
                          The solid state structure of germanium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                          More crystallographic data...

                          Germanium: biological data

                          网络斗地主下载Germanium has no biological role but is said to stimulate the metabolism.

                          More biological data...

                          Germanium: uses

                          Uses...

                          Germanium: reactions

                          网络斗地主下载 Reactions of germanium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                          View reactions of germanium...

                          Germanium: binary compounds

                          网络斗地主下载 Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of germanium where known.

                          View binary compounds...

                          Germanium: compound properties

                          网络斗地主下载 Bond strengths; lattice energies of germanium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                          View compound properties...

                          Germanium: history

                          Germanium was discovered by Clemens Winkler in 1886 at Germany. Origin of name: from the Latin word "Germania" meaning "Germany".

                          More history...

                          Germanium: isotopes

                          Isotope abundances of germanium
                          Isotope abundances of germanium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                          Germanium isotopes are mainly used for the production of medical As and Se radioisotopes. Ge-74 is used for the production of As-74, Ge-76 for the production of As-77, Ge-74 for the production of As-73 and Ge-72 for As-72. Ge-70, Ge-72 and Ge-74 can all be used for the production of the medical radioisotope Se-73, although the most common production route is via natural As (As-75). Natural GeF4 is used in the semiconductor pre-amorphisation implant process. The use of Ge-72, in the form of GeF4, improves this process and reduces contamination.

                          More isotope and NMR data...

                          Germanium: isolation

                          Isolation: there is normally no need to make germanium in the laboratory as it is readily available commercially. Germanium is available through the treatment of germanium dioxide, GeO2, with carbon or hydrogen. The extraction of germanium from flue dust is complex because of the difficulty in separating it from zinc, which is also present.

                          GeO2 + 2C → Ge + 2CO

                          GeO2 + 2H2 → Ge + 2H2O

                          Very pure germanium can be made by the reaction of GeCl4网络斗地主下载 with hydrogen.

                          GeCl4 + 2H2网络斗地主下载 → Ge + 4HCl

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