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                        2. ▸▸
                          • 🇬🇧 Gallium
                          • 🇨🇳 鎵
                          • 🇳🇱 Gallium
                          • 🇫🇷 Gallium
                          • 🇩🇪 Gallium
                          • 🇮🇱 גליום
                          • 🇮🇹 Gallio
                          • 🇯🇵 ガリウム
                          • 🇵🇹 Gálio
                          • 🇷🇺 Галлий
                          • 🇪🇸 Galio
                          • 🇸🇪 Gallium

                          Gallium: the essentials

                          Gallium atoms have 31 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.3. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral gallium is [Ar].3d10.4s2.4p1 and the term symbol of gallium is 2P1/2.

                          Gallium: description  

                          Gallium is the only metal, except for mercury, caesium, and rubidium, which can be liquid near room temperatures; this makes possible its use in high-temperature thermometers. It has one of the longest liquid ranges of any metal and has a low vapour pressure even at high temperatures.

                          Ultra-pure gallium has a beautiful, silvery appearance, and the solid metal exhibits a conchoidal fracture similar to glass. The metal expands on solidifying; therefore, it should not be stored in glass or metal containers, as they may break as the metal solidifies.

                          High-purity gallium is attacked only slowly by mineral acids. Gallium arsenide is capable of converting electricity directly into coherent light and gallium arsenide is a key component of LEDs (light emitting diodes). In the 1990s gallium nitride (GaN) was discovered to emit blue light in light-emitting diodes (LEDs). As red and green LEDs were already known, this meant that red green, and blue LEDS could be used in full-colour LED displays while white LEDs and blue laser devices became possible as well.

                          gallium
                          Image adapted with permission from 's (U. North Texas, USA) Walking Tour of the elements CD.

                          Gallium: physical properties

                          More physical properties...

                          Gallium: heat properties

                          More thermochemical properties...

                          Gallium: electronegativities

                          More electronegativity properties...

                          Gallium: orbital properties

                          More orbital properties...

                          Gallium: abundances

                          More geological data...

                          Gallium: crystal structure

                          Ga crystal structure
                          The solid state structure of gallium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                          More crystallographic data...

                          Gallium: biological data

                          网络斗地主下载Gallium apparently has no biological role but is said to stimulate the metabolism. Gallium compounds appear not to be particularly toxic.

                          More biological data...

                          Gallium: uses

                          Uses...

                          Gallium: reactions

                          网络斗地主下载 Reactions of gallium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                          View reactions of gallium...

                          Gallium: binary compounds

                          网络斗地主下载 Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of gallium where known.

                          View binary compounds...

                          Gallium: compound properties

                          网络斗地主下载 Bond strengths; lattice energies of gallium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                          View compound properties...

                          Gallium: history

                          Gallium was discovered by Paul-Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran in 1875 at France. Origin of name: from the Latin word "Gallia" meaning "France" and perhaps also from the Latin word "gallus", (the cock, a translation of Lecoq, the discoveror of gallium).

                          More history...

                          Gallium: isotopes

                          Isotope abundances of gallium
                          Isotope abundances of gallium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                          Gallium has two stable isotopes and both are used in nuclear medicine and physics. Ga-69 is used for production of the radioisotope Ge-68. This isotope is used for so-called Ge-68/Ga-68 generators. The Ga-68 that is created from the decay of Ge-68 is used as a PET isotope. Ga-71 has been used to study the behavior of solar neutrinos and it is also used in NMR studies.

                          More isotope and NMR data...

                          Gallium: isolation

                          Isolation: gallium is normally a byproduct of the manufacture of aluminium. The purification of bauxite by the Bayer process results in concentration of gallium in the alkaline solutions from an aluminium:gallum ratio from 5000 to 300. Electrolysis using a mercury electrode gives a further concentration and further electrolysis using a stainless steel cathode of the resulting sodium gallate affords liquid gallium metal.

                          Very pure gallium requires a number of further processes ending with zone refining to make very pure gallium metal.

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