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                    ▸▸
                    • 🇬🇧 Chlorine
                    • 🇨🇳 氯
                    • 🇳🇱 Chloor
                    • 🇫🇷 Chlore
                    • 🇩🇪 Chlor
                    • 🇮🇱 כלור
                    • 🇮🇹 Cloro
                    • 🇯🇵 塩素
                    • 🇵🇹 Cloro
                    • 🇷🇺 Хлор
                    • 🇪🇸 Cloro
                    • 🇸🇪 Klor

                    Chlorine: the essentials

                    Chlorine atoms have 17 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.7. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral chlorine is [Ne].3s2.3p5 and the term symbol of chlorine is 2P3/2.

                    Chlorine: description  

                    网络斗地主下载Chlorine is a greenish yellow gas which combines directly with nearly all elements. Chlorine is a respiratory irritant. The gas irritates the mucous membranes and the liquid burns the skin. As little as 3.5 ppm can be detected as an odour, and 1000 ppm is likely to be fatal after a few deep breaths. It was used as a war gas in 1915. It is not found in a free state in nature, but is found commonly as NaCl (solid or seawater).

                    Chlorine: physical properties

                    More physical properties...

                    Chlorine: heat properties

                    More thermochemical properties...

                    Chlorine: electronegativities

                    More electronegativity properties...

                    Chlorine: orbital properties

                    More orbital properties...

                    Chlorine: abundances

                    More geological data...

                    Chlorine: crystal structure

                    Cl crystal structure
                    The solid state structure of chlorine is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                    More crystallographic data...

                    Chlorine: biological data

                    Chlorine as chloride (Cl-) is essential for mammals and plants. Digestive juices in the stomache contain hydrochloric acid.

                    More biological data...

                    Chlorine: uses

                    Uses...

                    Chlorine: reactions

                    网络斗地主下载 Reactions of chlorine as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                    View reactions of chlorine...

                    Chlorine: binary compounds

                    Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of chlorine where known.

                    View binary compounds...

                    Chlorine: compound properties

                    Bond strengths; lattice energies of chlorine halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                    View compound properties...

                    Chlorine: history

                    Chlorine was discovered by Carl William Scheele in 1774 at Sweden. Origin of name: from the Greek word "chloros" meaning "pale green".

                    More history...

                    Chlorine: isotopes

                    Isotope abundances of chlorine
                    Isotope abundances of chlorine with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                    网络斗地主下载Both Chlorine isotopes, Cl-35 and Cl-37, are used to study the toxicity of environmental pollutant and are usually supplied in the form of NaCl.

                    More isotope and NMR data...

                    Chlorine: isolation

                    Isolation: it is rarely necessary to make chlorine in the laboratory as it is readily available commercially in cylindes. Chlorine is found largely in seawater where it exists as sodium chloride. It is recovered as a reactive, corrosive, pale green chlorine gas from brine (a solution of sodium chloride in water) by electrolyis. Electrolysis of molten salt, NaCl, also succeeds, in which case the other product is sodium metal rather than sodium hydroxide.

                    Na+ + Cl- + H2O → Na+ + 1/2Cl2 + 1/2H2 + OH-

                    In the laboratory under carefully controlled conditions, chlorine can be made by the action of an oxidizing agent such as manganese dioxide, MnO2网络斗地主下载, upon concentrated hydrochloric acid - the same reaction used by Scheele in 1774 when discovering chlorine.

                    MnO2 + 4HCl → MnCl2 + Cl2 + 2H2O

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