网络斗地主下载

  • <tr id='rpif4'><strong id='rpif4'></strong><small id='rpif4'></small><button id='rpif4'></button><li id='rpif4'><noscript id='rpif4'><big id='rpif4'></big><dt id='rpif4'></dt></noscript></li></tr><ol id='rpif4'><option id='rpif4'><table id='rpif4'><blockquote id='rpif4'><tbody id='rpif4'></tbody></blockquote></table></option></ol><u id='rpif4'></u><kbd id='rpif4'><kbd id='rpif4'></kbd></kbd>

    <code id='rpif4'><strong id='rpif4'></strong></code>

    <fieldset id='rpif4'></fieldset>
          <span id='rpif4'></span>

              <ins id='rpif4'></ins>
              <acronym id='rpif4'><em id='rpif4'></em><td id='rpif4'><div id='rpif4'></div></td></acronym><address id='rpif4'><big id='rpif4'><big id='rpif4'></big><legend id='rpif4'></legend></big></address>

              <i id='rpif4'><div id='rpif4'><ins id='rpif4'></ins></div></i>
              <i id='rpif4'></i>
            1. <dl id='rpif4'></dl>
              1. <small id='vby6i'></small><noframes id='vby6i'>

              2. <tfoot id='vby6i'></tfoot>

                  <legend id='vby6i'><style id='vby6i'><dir id='vby6i'><q id='vby6i'></q></dir></style></legend>
                  <i id='vby6i'><tr id='vby6i'><dt id='vby6i'><q id='vby6i'><span id='vby6i'><b id='vby6i'><form id='vby6i'><ins id='vby6i'></ins><ul id='vby6i'></ul><sub id='vby6i'></sub></form><legend id='vby6i'></legend><bdo id='vby6i'><pre id='vby6i'><center id='vby6i'></center></pre></bdo></b><th id='vby6i'></th></span></q></dt></tr></i><div id='vby6i'><tfoot id='vby6i'></tfoot><dl id='vby6i'><fieldset id='vby6i'></fieldset></dl></div>

                      <bdo id='vby6i'></bdo><ul id='vby6i'></ul>

                      1. <li id='vby6i'><abbr id='vby6i'></abbr></li>
                          <dir id='noyyz'><del id='noyyz'><del id='noyyz'></del><pre id='noyyz'><pre id='noyyz'><option id='noyyz'><address id='noyyz'></address><bdo id='noyyz'><tr id='noyyz'><acronym id='noyyz'><pre id='noyyz'></pre></acronym><div id='noyyz'></div></tr></bdo></option></pre><small id='noyyz'><address id='noyyz'><u id='noyyz'><legend id='noyyz'><option id='noyyz'><abbr id='noyyz'></abbr><li id='noyyz'><pre id='noyyz'></pre></li></option></legend><select id='noyyz'></select></u></address></small></pre></del><sup id='noyyz'></sup><blockquote id='noyyz'><dt id='noyyz'></dt></blockquote><blockquote id='noyyz'></blockquote></dir><tt id='noyyz'></tt><u id='noyyz'><tt id='noyyz'><form id='noyyz'></form></tt><td id='noyyz'><dt id='noyyz'></dt></td></u>
                        1. <code id='noyyz'><i id='noyyz'><q id='noyyz'><legend id='noyyz'><pre id='noyyz'><style id='noyyz'><acronym id='noyyz'><i id='noyyz'><form id='noyyz'><option id='noyyz'><center id='noyyz'></center></option></form></i></acronym></style><tt id='noyyz'></tt></pre></legend></q></i></code><center id='noyyz'></center>

                            <dd id='noyyz'></dd>

                              <style id='noyyz'></style><sub id='noyyz'><dfn id='noyyz'><abbr id='noyyz'><big id='noyyz'><bdo id='noyyz'></bdo></big></abbr></dfn></sub>
                              <dir id='noyyz'></dir>
                            1. ▸▸
                              • 🇬🇧 Calcium
                              • 🇨🇳 鈣
                              • 🇳🇱 Calcium
                              • 🇫🇷 Calcium
                              • 🇩🇪 Calcium
                              • 🇮🇱 סידן
                              • 🇮🇹 Calcio
                              • 🇯🇵 カルシウム
                              • 🇵🇹 Cálcio
                              • 🇷🇺 Кальций
                              • 🇪🇸 Calcio
                              • 🇸🇪 Kalcium

                              Calcium: the essentials

                              Calcium atoms have 20 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.8.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral calcium is [Ar].4s2 and the term symbol of calcium is 1S0.

                              Calcium: description  

                              Calcium as the element is a grey silvery metal. The metal is rather hard. Calcium is an essential constituent of leaves, bones, teeth, and shells. Calcium is the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust and makes up more than 3% of the crust. Calcium does not occur as the metal itself in nature and instead is found in various minerals including as limestone, gypsum and fluorite. Stalagmites and stalactites contain calcium carbonate (CaCO3网络斗地主下载). Calcium carbonate is the basis of the cement industry.

                              Calcium is classified chemically as one of the alkaline earth elements (that is, in Group 2 of the periodic table. The metal is rather reactive. It readily forms a white coating of calcium nitride (Ca3N2) in air. It reacts with water and the metal burns with a yellow-red flame, forming largely the nitride.

                              calcium
                              This sample is from , an attractive and safely packaged collection of the 92 naturally occurring elements that is available for sale.

                              Calcium: physical properties

                              More physical properties...

                              Calcium: heat properties

                              More thermochemical properties...

                              Calcium: electronegativities

                              More electronegativity properties...

                              Calcium: orbital properties

                              More orbital properties...

                              Calcium: abundances

                              More geological data...

                              Calcium: crystal structure

                              Ca crystal structure
                              The solid state structure of calcium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                              More crystallographic data...

                              Calcium: biological data

                              网络斗地主下载Calcium is essential for all life. It forms part of cell walls and bones. It is important for blood clotting.

                              More biological data...

                              Calcium: uses

                              Uses...

                              Calcium: reactions

                              Reactions of calcium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                              View reactions of calcium...

                              Calcium: binary compounds

                              网络斗地主下载 Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of calcium where known.

                              View binary compounds...

                              Calcium: compound properties

                              网络斗地主下载 Bond strengths; lattice energies of calcium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                              View compound properties...

                              Calcium: history

                              Calcium was discovered by Sir Humphrey Davy in 1808 at England. Origin of name: from the Latin word "calx" meaning "lime".

                              More history...

                              Calcium: isotopes

                              Isotope abundances of calcium
                              Isotope abundances of calcium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                              网络斗地主下载Calcium isotopes (mainly Ca-42, Ca-44, Ca-46 and Ca-48) are used extensively in clinical research and mainly in nutritional studies. They are used to measure calcium absorption mainly in women and children. In adults, calcium deficiency is strongly related to increasing severity of osteoporosis. In children, calcium deficiency is primarily related to the development of rickets. Ca-48 has been used to bombard Pb and Bi targets in order to create super heavy elements.

                              More isotope and NMR data...

                              Calcium: isolation

                              Isolation: calcium metal is readily available commercially and there is no need to make it in the laboratory. Commercially it can be made by the electrolysis of molten calcium chloride, CaCl2.

                              cathode: Ca2+(l) + 2e- → Ca

                              anode: Cl-(l) → 1/2Cl2 (g) + e-

                              网络斗地主下载The calcium chloride is made by the action of hydrochloric acid upon calcium carbonate. Calcium chloride is also a byproduct in the Solway process used to make sodium carbonate.

                              CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

                              Alternatively, and on small scale, calcium can be made through the reduction of CaO with aluminium or of CaCl2网络斗地主下载 with sodium metal

                              6CaO + 2Al→ 3Ca + Ca3Al2O6

                              CaCl2 + 2Na→ Ca + 2NaCl

                              在线赌博最新 老虎机大全---网络斗地主下载_欢迎您 疯狂牛牛安卓---网络斗地主下载_欢迎您 娱乐正规网址-Welcome 乐酷棋牌---网络斗地主下载_欢迎您