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                        ▸▸
                        • 🇬🇧 Caesium
                        • 🇨🇳 銫
                        • 🇳🇱 Cesium
                        • 🇫🇷 Césium
                        • 🇩🇪 C�sium
                        • 🇮🇱 צזיום
                        • 🇮🇹 Cesio
                        • 🇯🇵 セシウム
                        • 🇵🇹 Césio
                        • 🇷🇺 Цезий
                        • 🇪🇸 Cesio
                        • 🇸🇪 Cesium

                        Caesium: the essentials

                        Caesium atoms have 55 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.18.8.1. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral caesium is [Xe].6s1 and the term symbol of caesium is 2S1/2.

                        Caesium: description  

                        Caesium is known as cesium in the USA.

                        The metal is characterised by a spectrum containing two bright lines in the blue (accounting for its name). It is silvery gold, soft, and ductile. It is the most electropositive and most alkaline element. Caesium, gallium, and mercury are the only three metals that are liquid at or around room temperature. Caesium reacts explosively with cold water, and reacts with ice at temperatures above -116°C. Caesium hydroxide is a strong base and attacks glass.

                        Science and Ink cartoon for caesium
                        Cartoon by Nick D Kim (, used by permission).

                        caesium
                        Image adapted with permission from 's (U. North Texas, USA) Walking Tour of the elements CD.

                        Caesium: physical properties

                        More physical properties...

                        Caesium: heat properties

                        More thermochemical properties...

                        Caesium: electronegativities

                        More electronegativity properties...

                        Caesium: orbital properties

                        More orbital properties...

                        Caesium: abundances

                        More geological data...

                        Caesium: crystal structure

                        Cs crystal structure
                        The solid state structure of caesium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                        More crystallographic data...

                        Caesium: biological data

                        Caesium (cesium in USA) has no biological role. However it is capable of replacing potassium in the body to some extent because of its chemical similarity. Ingestion of any caesium compounds is therefore to be avoided. Because of this similarity, the isotopes 134Cs and 137Cs (present in the biosphere in small amounts as a result of radiation leaks) are very toxic. Rats fed caesium in place of potassium in their diet die.

                        More biological data...

                        Caesium: uses

                        Uses...

                        Caesium: reactions

                        网络斗地主下载 Reactions of caesium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                        View reactions of caesium...

                        Caesium: binary compounds

                        网络斗地主下载 Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of caesium where known.

                        View binary compounds...

                        Caesium: compound properties

                        Bond strengths; lattice energies of caesium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                        View compound properties...

                        Caesium: history

                        Caesium was discovered by Gustav Kirchhoff, Robert Bunsen in 1860 at Germany. Origin of name: from the Latin word "caesius" meaning "sky blue" or "heavenly blue".

                        More history...

                        Caesium: isotopes

                        Isotope abundances of caesium
                        Isotope abundances of caesium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                        More isotope and NMR data...

                        Caesium: isolation

                        Isolation: caesium (cesium in USA) would not normally be made in the laboratory as it is available commercially. All syntheses require an electrolytic step as it is so difficult to add an electron to the poorly electronegative caesium ion Cs+.

                        Caesium is not made by the same method as sodium as might have been expected. This is because the caesium metal, once formed by electrolysis of liquid caesium chloride (CsCl), is too soluble in the molten salt.

                        cathode: Cs+(l) + e- → Cs (l)

                        anode: Cl-(l) → 1/2Cl2 (g) + e-

                        网络斗地主下载Instead, it is made by the reaction of metallic sodium with hot molten caesium chloride.

                        网络斗地主下载Na + CsCl ⇌ Cs + NaCl

                        This is an equilbrium reaction and under these conditions the caesium is highly volatile and removed from the system in a form relatively free from sodium impurities, allowing the reaction to proceed. It can be purified by distillation.

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