网络斗地主下载

    1. <form id='8y7e4'></form>
        <bdo id='8y7e4'><sup id='8y7e4'><div id='8y7e4'><bdo id='8y7e4'></bdo></div></sup></bdo>

              <dir id='z372h'><del id='z372h'><del id='z372h'></del><pre id='z372h'><pre id='z372h'><option id='z372h'><address id='z372h'></address><bdo id='z372h'><tr id='z372h'><acronym id='z372h'><pre id='z372h'></pre></acronym><div id='z372h'></div></tr></bdo></option></pre><small id='z372h'><address id='z372h'><u id='z372h'><legend id='z372h'><option id='z372h'><abbr id='z372h'></abbr><li id='z372h'><pre id='z372h'></pre></li></option></legend><select id='z372h'></select></u></address></small></pre></del><sup id='z372h'></sup><blockquote id='z372h'><dt id='z372h'></dt></blockquote><blockquote id='z372h'></blockquote></dir><tt id='z372h'></tt><u id='z372h'><tt id='z372h'><form id='z372h'></form></tt><td id='z372h'><dt id='z372h'></dt></td></u>
            1. <code id='z372h'><i id='z372h'><q id='z372h'><legend id='z372h'><pre id='z372h'><style id='z372h'><acronym id='z372h'><i id='z372h'><form id='z372h'><option id='z372h'><center id='z372h'></center></option></form></i></acronym></style><tt id='z372h'></tt></pre></legend></q></i></code><center id='z372h'></center>

                <dd id='z372h'></dd>

                  <style id='z372h'></style><sub id='z372h'><dfn id='z372h'><abbr id='z372h'><big id='z372h'><bdo id='z372h'></bdo></big></abbr></dfn></sub>
                  <dir id='z372h'></dir>
                1. <small id='oj5gq'></small><noframes id='oj5gq'>

                2. <tfoot id='oj5gq'></tfoot>

                    <legend id='oj5gq'><style id='oj5gq'><dir id='oj5gq'><q id='oj5gq'></q></dir></style></legend>
                    <i id='oj5gq'><tr id='oj5gq'><dt id='oj5gq'><q id='oj5gq'><span id='oj5gq'><b id='oj5gq'><form id='oj5gq'><ins id='oj5gq'></ins><ul id='oj5gq'></ul><sub id='oj5gq'></sub></form><legend id='oj5gq'></legend><bdo id='oj5gq'><pre id='oj5gq'><center id='oj5gq'></center></pre></bdo></b><th id='oj5gq'></th></span></q></dt></tr></i><div id='oj5gq'><tfoot id='oj5gq'></tfoot><dl id='oj5gq'><fieldset id='oj5gq'></fieldset></dl></div>

                        <bdo id='oj5gq'></bdo><ul id='oj5gq'></ul>

                      1. ▸▸
                        • 🇬🇧 Cadmium
                        • 🇨🇳 鎘
                        • 🇳🇱 Cadmium
                        • 🇫🇷 Cadmium
                        • 🇩🇪 Cadmium
                        • 🇮🇱 קדמיום
                        • 🇮🇹 Cadmio
                        • 🇯🇵 カドミウム
                        • 🇵🇹 Cádmio
                        • 🇷🇺 Кадмий
                        • 🇪🇸 Cadmio
                        • 🇸🇪 Kadmium

                        Cadmium: the essentials

                        Cadmium atoms have 48 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.18.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral cadmium is [Kr].4d10.5s2 and the term symbol of cadmium is 1S0.

                        Cadmium: description  

                        Cadmium is a soft, bluish-white metal and is easily cut with a knife. It is similar in many respects to zinc. Interestingly, aa characteristic cadmium "scream" is heard on bending a cadmium bar (such as that illustrated above). Cadmium and its compounds are highly toxic. Silver solder, which contains cadmium, should be handled with care.

                        Science and Ink cartoon for cadmium
                        Cartoon by Nick D Kim (, used by permission).

                        Cadmium: physical properties

                        More physical properties...

                        Cadmium: heat properties

                        More thermochemical properties...

                        Cadmium: electronegativities

                        More electronegativity properties...

                        Cadmium: orbital properties

                        More orbital properties...

                        Cadmium: abundances

                        More geological data...

                        Cadmium: crystal structure

                        Cd crystal structure
                        The solid state structure of cadmium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                        More crystallographic data...

                        Cadmium: biological data

                        网络斗地主下载Cadmium might be a necessary element in very, very, small quantities in rats.

                        网络斗地主下载Inhalation of cadmium dust causes problems for the respiratory tract and for the kidneys. Death may follow. Ingestion of any significant amount of cadmium causes immediate poisoning and damage to the liver and the kidneys.

                        More biological data...

                        Cadmium: uses

                        Uses...

                        Cadmium: reactions

                        Reactions of cadmium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                        View reactions of cadmium...

                        Cadmium: binary compounds

                        Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of cadmium where known.

                        View binary compounds...

                        Cadmium: compound properties

                        Bond strengths; lattice energies of cadmium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                        View compound properties...

                        Cadmium: history

                        Cadmium was discovered by Friedrich Strohmeyer in 1817 at Germany. Origin of name: somewhat confusingly, from the Latin word "cadmia" meaning "calamine" (zinc carbonate, ZnCO3) and from the Greek word "kadmeia" with the same meaning..

                        More history...

                        Cadmium: isotopes

                        Isotope abundances of cadmium
                        Isotope abundances of cadmium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                        The nine stable Cadmium isotopes are used for many different purposes. Cd-110 is used for the production of the radioisotope In-110, while Cd-112 is used in the production of the widely used diagnostic radioisotope In-111. Cd-108 is used in the production of Cd-109 which is a calibration source for 88 keV gamma radiation. The even numbered Cd isotopes (mainly Cd-110, Cd-112, Cd-114 and Cd-116) are used to improve the power output and coherence length of HeCd lasers.

                        More isotope and NMR data...

                        Cadmium: isolation

                        Isolation: it is rare that preparation of cadmium in the laboratory should be required bacause of environmental concerns about cadmium. The isolation of cadmium is associated with zinc recovery as cadmium is an impurity in zinc ores. Most zinc production is based upon sulphide ores. These are roasted in industrial plants to form zinc oxide, ZnO. This may be reduced with carbon to form zinc metal, but in practice ingenious technology is required to ensure that the resulting zinc does not contain oxide impurities.

                        ZnO + C → Zn + CO

                        ZnO + CO → Zn + CO2

                        CO2网络斗地主下载 + C → 2CO

                        网络斗地主下载After this process, zinc may be refined by distillation under vacuum and this process also allows the separation of any cadmium present in the crude zinc.

                        The other type of extraction of zinc is electrolytic. Dissolution of crude zinc oxide, ZnO, in sulphuric acid gives zinc sulphate, ZnSO4 in solution. Before electrolysis to produce zinc, the cadmium impurity and is removed as a precipitate by the addition of zinc dust as cadmium sulphate.

                        在线赌博最新 老虎机大全---网络斗地主下载_欢迎您 疯狂牛牛安卓---网络斗地主下载_欢迎您 娱乐正规网址-Welcome 乐酷棋牌---网络斗地主下载_欢迎您