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                                    ▸▸
                                    • 🇬🇧 Bromine
                                    • 🇨🇳 溴
                                    • 🇳🇱 Broom
                                    • 🇫🇷 Brome
                                    • 🇩🇪 Brom
                                    • 🇮🇱 ברום
                                    • 🇮🇹 Bromo
                                    • 🇯🇵 臭素
                                    • 🇵🇹 Bromo
                                    • 🇷🇺 Бром
                                    • 🇪🇸 Bromo
                                    • 🇸🇪 Brom

                                    Bromine: the essentials

                                    Bromine atoms have 35 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.7. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral bromine is [Ar].3d10.4s2.4p5 and the term symbol of bromine is 2P3/2.

                                    Bromine: description  

                                    网络斗地主下载Bromine is the only liquid nonmetallic element. It is a member of the halogen group. It is a heavy, volatile, mobile, dangerous reddish-brown liquid. The red vapour has a strong unpleasant odour and the vapour irritates the eyes and throat. It is a bleaching. When spilled on the skin it produces painful sores. It is a serious health hazard, and maximum safety precautions should be taken when handling it.

                                    Science and Ink cartoon for bromine
                                    网络斗地主下载Cartoon by Nick D Kim (, used by permission).

                                    Bromine: physical properties

                                    More physical properties...

                                    Bromine: heat properties

                                    More thermochemical properties...

                                    Bromine: electronegativities

                                    More electronegativity properties...

                                    Bromine: orbital properties

                                    More orbital properties...

                                    Bromine: abundances

                                    More geological data...

                                    Bromine: crystal structure

                                    Br crystal structure
                                    The solid state structure of bromine is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                                    More crystallographic data...

                                    Bromine: biological data

                                    Bromine may be an essential trace element for red algae and possibly mammals. It is found in the mollusc pigment "royal purple", although its role is not understood. Excessive bromide intake leads to depression and of weight loss.

                                    More biological data...

                                    Bromine: uses

                                    Uses...

                                    Bromine: reactions

                                    Reactions of bromine as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                                    View reactions of bromine...

                                    Bromine: binary compounds

                                    Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of bromine where known.

                                    View binary compounds...

                                    Bromine: compound properties

                                    Bond strengths; lattice energies of bromine halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                                    View compound properties...

                                    Bromine: history

                                    Bromine was discovered by Antoine-J. Balard in 1826 at France. Origin of name: from the Greek word "bromos" meaning "stench".

                                    More history...

                                    Bromine: isotopes

                                    Isotope abundances of bromine
                                    Isotope abundances of bromine with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                                    Both Bromine isotopes are used in nuclear medicine. Br-81 is used for the production of the radioisotope Kr-81m which is used for diagnostics. Br-79 can be used for the cyclotron production of Kr-77 which decays to the radioisotope Br-77 although the most common production route for Br-77 is via Se-77. Br-77 has been suggested for radiotherapy because of it electron capture decay and ease of labeling.

                                    More isotope and NMR data...

                                    Bromine: isolation

                                    Isolation: bromine is available commercially so it is not normally necessary to make it in the laboratory. Bromine also occurs in seawater as the sodium salt but in much smaller quantities than chloride. It is recovered commercially through the treatment of seawater with chlorine gas and flushing through with air. In this treatment, bromide is oxidized to bromine by the chlorine gas. The principle of oxidation of bromide to bromine is shown by the addition of a little chlorine water to aqueous solutions of bromide. These become brown as elemental bromine forms.

                                    2Br- + Cl2 → 2Cl- + Br2

                                    Small amounts of bromine can also be made through the reaction of solid sodium bromide, NaBr, with concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4. The first stage is formation of HBr, which is a gas, but under the reaction conditions some of the HBr is oxidized by further H2SO4网络斗地主下载 to form bromine and sulphur dioxide. This reaction does not work with the corresponding chlorides and fluorides.

                                    NaBr (s) + H2SO4 (l) → HBr (g) + NaHSO4 (s)

                                    2HBr (g) + H2SO4 (l) → Br2 (g) + SO2 (g) + 2H2O (l)

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