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                        • ▸▸
                          • 🇬🇧 Bismuth
                          • 🇨🇳 鉍
                          • 🇳🇱 Bismut
                          • 🇫🇷 Bismuth
                          • 🇩🇪 Bismut
                          • 🇮🇱 ביסמות
                          • 🇮🇹 Bismuto
                          • 🇯🇵 ビスマス
                          • 🇵🇹 Bismuto
                          • 🇷🇺 Висмут
                          • 🇪🇸 Bismuto
                          • 🇸🇪 Vismut

                          Bismuth: the essentials

                          Bismuth atoms have 83 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.18.32.18.5. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral bismuth is [Xe].4f14.5d10.6s2.6p3 and the term symbol of bismuth is 4S3/2.

                          Bismuth: description  

                          网络斗地主下载Bismuth is a white, crystalline, brittle metal with a pinkish tinge. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic of all metals, and the thermal conductivity is lower than any metal, except mercury. It has a high electrical resistance, and has the highest Hall effect of any metal (that is, the greatest increase in electrical resistance when placed in a magnetic field).

                          bismuth

                          Science and Ink cartoon for bismuth
                          网络斗地主下载Cartoon by Nick D Kim (, used by permission).

                          Bismuth: physical properties

                          More physical properties...

                          Bismuth: heat properties

                          More thermochemical properties...

                          Bismuth: atom sizes

                          More atomc size properties...

                          Bismuth: electronegativities

                          More electronegativity properties...

                          Bismuth: orbital properties

                          More orbital properties...

                          Bismuth: abundances

                          More geological data...

                          Bismuth: crystal structure

                          Bi crystal structure
                          The solid state structure of bismuth is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                          More crystallographic data...

                          Bismuth: biological data

                          网络斗地主下载Bismuth has no biological role. However it has been used for some time as a medicine (tripotassium dicitratobismuthate) for treatment of stomach upsets. In combination with antibiotics it is now used for treatment of some stomach ulcers. It is also to be found in haemorrhoid creams such as Anusol cream and Hemocaneas as bismuth oxide and in Anusol ointment as bismuth subgallate.

                          More biological data...

                          Bismuth: uses

                          Uses...

                          Bismuth: reactions

                          网络斗地主下载 Reactions of bismuth as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                          View reactions of bismuth...

                          Bismuth: binary compounds

                          Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of bismuth where known.

                          View binary compounds...

                          Bismuth: compound properties

                          Bond strengths; lattice energies of bismuth halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                          View compound properties...

                          Bismuth: history

                          Bismuth was discovered by known since ancient times in unknown at not known. Origin of name: from the German word "bisemutum".

                          More history...

                          Bismuth: isotopes

                          Isotope abundances of bismuth
                          Isotope abundances of bismuth with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                          More isotope and NMR data...

                          Bismuth: isolation

                          Isolation: it is not normally necessary to make bismuth in the laboratory as it is available commercially. Bismuth is found in nature largely as bismite (Bi2O3), bismuthinite (Bi2S3), and bismutite [(BiO)2CO3网络斗地主下载]. However it is generally made as a byproduct of copper, lead,tin, silver, gold, and zinc plants. The final step involves a reduction of the oxide by charcoal.

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