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                    ▸▸
                    • 🇬🇧 Beryllium
                    • 🇨🇳 鈹
                    • 🇳🇱 Beryllium
                    • 🇫🇷 Béryllium
                    • 🇩🇪 Beryllium
                    • 🇮🇱 בריליום
                    • 🇮🇹 Berillio
                    • 🇯🇵 ベリリウム
                    • 🇵🇹 Berílio
                    • 🇷🇺 Бериллий
                    • 🇪🇸 Berilio
                    • 🇸🇪 Beryllium

                    Beryllium: the essentials

                    Beryllium atoms have 4 electrons and the shell structure is 2.2. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral beryllium is [He].2s2 and the term symbol of beryllium is 1S0.

                    Beryllium: description  

                    Beryllium is a Group 2 (IIA) element. It is a metal and has a high melting point. At ordinary temperatures, beryllium resists oxidation in air. Beryllium compounds are very toxic. Its ability to scratch glass is probably due to the formation of a thin layer of the oxide. Aquamarine and emerald are precious forms of the mineral beryl, [Be3Al2(SiO3)6].

                    Its chemistry is dominated by its tendency to lose an electron to form Be2+网络斗地主下载. As this ion is so small it is highly polarising, to the extent that its compounds are rather covalent. Its small size means that its complexes tend to be tetrahedral rahter than octahedral.

                    Beryllium: physical properties

                    More physical properties...

                    Beryllium: heat properties

                    More thermochemical properties...

                    Beryllium: atom sizes

                    More atomc size properties...

                    Beryllium: electronegativities

                    More electronegativity properties...

                    Beryllium: orbital properties

                    More orbital properties...

                    Beryllium: abundances

                    More geological data...

                    Beryllium: crystal structure

                    Be crystal structure
                    The solid state structure of beryllium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                    More crystallographic data...

                    Beryllium: biological data

                    Beryllium has no biological role. In fact, compounds containing beryllium are poisonous.

                    More biological data...

                    Beryllium: uses

                    Uses...

                    Beryllium: reactions

                    Reactions of beryllium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                    View reactions of beryllium...

                    Beryllium: binary compounds

                    Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of beryllium where known.

                    View binary compounds...

                    Beryllium: compound properties

                    网络斗地主下载 Bond strengths; lattice energies of beryllium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                    View compound properties...

                    Beryllium: history

                    Beryllium was discovered by Nicholas Louis Vauquelin (1763-1829) in 1797 at France. Origin of name: from the Greek word "beryllos" meaning "beryl".

                    More history...

                    Beryllium: isotopes

                    Isotope abundances of beryllium
                    Isotope abundances of beryllium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                    More isotope and NMR data...

                    Beryllium: isolation

                    Isolation: beryllium metal is available commercially and so would never normally be made in the laboratory. Its extraction from ores is complex. The mineral beryl, [Be3Al2(SiO3)6] is the most important source of beryllium. It is roasted with sodimu hexafluorosilicate, Na2SiF6, at 700°C to form beryllium fluoride. This is water soluble and the beryllium may be precipitated as the hydroxide Be(OH)2 by adjustment of the pH to 12.

                    Pure beryllium may be obtained by electrolysis of molten BeCl2 containing some NaCl. The salt is added since the molten BeCl2网络斗地主下载 conducts very poorly. Another method involves the reduction of beryllium fluoride with magnesium at 1300°C.

                    BeF2 + Mg → MgF2 + Be

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