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                          • ▸▸
                            • 🇬🇧 Aluminium
                            • 🇨🇳 鋁
                            • 🇳🇱 Aluminium
                            • 🇫🇷 Aluminium
                            • 🇩🇪 Aluminium
                            • 🇮🇱 אלומיניום
                            • 🇮🇹 Alluminio
                            • 🇯🇵 アルミニウム
                            • 🇵🇹 Alumínio
                            • 🇷🇺 Алюминий
                            • 🇪🇸 Aluminio
                            • 🇸🇪 Aluminium

                            Aluminium: the essentials

                            Aluminium atoms have 13 electrons and the shell structure is 2.8.3. The ground state electronic configuration of neutral aluminium is [Ne].3s2.3p1 and the term symbol of aluminium is 2P1/2.

                            Aluminium: description  

                            网络斗地主下载Pure aluminium is a silvery-white metal with many desirable characteristics. It is light, nontoxic (as the metal), nonmagnetic and nonsparking. It is somewhat decorative. It is easily formed, machined, and cast. Pure aluminium is soft and lacks strength, but alloys with small amounts of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese, and other elements have very useful properties. Aluminium is an abundant element in the earth's crust, but it is not found free in nature. The Bayer process is used to refine aluminium from bauxite, an aluminium ore.

                            aluminium metal

                            Aluminium: physical properties

                            More physical properties...

                            Aluminium: heat properties

                            More thermochemical properties...

                            Aluminium: atom sizes

                            More atomc size properties...

                            Aluminium: electronegativities

                            More electronegativity properties...

                            Aluminium: orbital properties

                            More orbital properties...

                            Aluminium: abundances

                            More geological data...

                            Aluminium: crystal structure

                            Al crystal structure
                            The solid state structure of aluminium is: bcc (body-centred cubic).

                            More crystallographic data...

                            Aluminium: biological data

                            Aluminium may be involved in the action of enzymes such a succinic dehydrogenase and δ-aminolevulinate dehydrase (involved in porphyrin synthesis. Aluminium compounds are toxic to most plants and somewhat toxic to mammals. Aluminium has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia).

                            More biological data...

                            Aluminium: uses

                            Uses...

                            Aluminium: reactions

                            网络斗地主下载 Reactions of aluminium as the element with air, water, halogens, acids, and bases where known.

                            View reactions of aluminium...

                            Aluminium: binary compounds

                            Binary compounds with halogens (known as halides), oxygen (known as oxides), hydrogen (known as hydrides), and other compounds of aluminium where known.

                            View binary compounds...

                            Aluminium: compound properties

                            网络斗地主下载 Bond strengths; lattice energies of aluminium halides, hydrides, oxides (where known); and reduction potentials where known.

                            View compound properties...

                            Aluminium: history

                            Aluminium was discovered by Hans Christian Oersted in 1825 at Denmark. Origin of name: from the Latin word "alumen" meaning "alum".

                            More history...

                            Aluminium: isotopes

                            Isotope abundances of aluminium
                            Isotope abundances of aluminium with the most intense signal set to 100%.

                            More isotope and NMR data...

                            Aluminium: isolation

                            Isolation网络斗地主下载: aluminium would not mormally be made in the laboratory as it is so readily available commercially.

                            Aluminium is mined in huge scales as bauxite (typically Al2O3.2H2O). Bauxite contains Fe2O3, SiO2, and other impurities. In order to isolate pure aluminium, these impurities must be removed from the bauxite. This is done by the Bayer process. This involves treatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, which results in a solution of sodium aluminate and sodium silicate. The iron remains behind as a solid. When CO2 is blown through the resulting solution, the sodium silicate stays in solution while the aluminium is precipitated out as aluminium hydroxide. The hydroxide can be filtered off, washed, and heated to form pure alumina, Al2O3.

                            The next stage is formation of pure aluminium. This is obtained from the pure Al2O3网络斗地主下载 by an electrolytic method. Electrolysis is necessary as aluminium is so electropositive. It seems these days that electrolysis of the hot oxide in a carbon lined steel cell acting as the cathode with carbon anodes is most common.

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